This report on the classification of surface waters is one of a series of reports by UKTAG to the UK administrations setting out UKTAG's recommendations and proposals on how waters should be classified for the purposes of the Water Framework Directive.
A technical report on proposals for a first set of standards and conditions was published for review in 2006. The revised report was issued in August 2006 in the form of a recommendation to the UK governments. The UKTAG updated the report in November 2007.
Drinking water protected areas are bodies of surface water or groundwater:(i) used, or planned to be used, for the abstraction of water intended for human consumption; and(ii) providing, or planned to provide, a total of more than 10 cubic metres of water per day on average, or serving, or plann
The regulation of metals in the aquatic environment through the use of environmental quality standards (EQSs) presents a challenge to environmental regulators.
By accounting for bioavailability in assessing metal compliance against an EQS, it is possible to provide the most environmentally and ecologically relevant metric of metal risk.
This paper provides guidance on the spatial and scale issues that should be considered in the assessment of data and classification of groundwater bodies, as required by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Groundwater Daughter Directive (GWD).
Aquatic benthic invertebrates, of which chironomids are the largest family, are good indicators of nutrient enrichment and can be used to assess lake water quality. Passively drifting pupal skins accumulating at the lake leeward shore are easily collected.
Macrophytes provide habitats for fish and smaller animals; they bind sediments, protect banks, absorb nutrients and provide oxygenation. Macrophytes can indicate the impact of increased nutrients in lakes and are also influenced by other pressures such as water level change or acidification.